Thursday, 13 March 2014

Tutorial activity 2

Structures in context

Tutorial 2

Describe and give 2 examples for:

1. Subject
  • A Subject is an obligatory component in a sentence. 
  • One of the two main parts of a sentence. (The other main part is the predicate.)
  • sometimes called the naming part of a sentence or clause.
  • also called as "doer" of something.
examples: a) The boy is my son.
                 b) The tall hansome guy is my boyfriend.

*for more information click here.

2. Direct object
  • A noun phrase denoting a person or thing that is the recipient of the action of a transitive verb, for example the dog in Jimmy fed the dog.
examples: a)The crowd will cheer the President.

  •                  b)We can climb the hill and fly the kite.

  • 3. Indirect object

    • Recipient of the direct object.
    • A noun phrase referring to someone or something that is affected by the action of a transitive verb (typically as a recipient), but is not the primary object 
    examples: a) The boy give his friend a ball.
                     b) Miss Aika give him the book.

    How to identify indirect object?

    Try to restructure the sentence by putting 'TO' after the direct object of the sentence. For instance, Miss Aika give the book to him

    4. Subject complement

    5. Object complement

    • An object complement is an noun, pronoun, or adjective which follows a direct object and renames it or tells what the direct object has become.
    •  It is most often used with verbs of creating or nominating such as make, name, elect, paint, call, etc.
    example: a) I found the guard sleeping.
                   b) To make her happy.


    Identify by underlining the functions of these sentences

    a. Subject : The boy at the side went outside.
    b. Direct Object : They bought many gifts.
    c. Indirect Object : Sheila sent Maniam a message.
    d. Subject complement : Maya is quite unhappy.
    e. Object complement : David usually makes the teacher angry.

    Form and function

    Form can be:
    • Noun Phrase
    • Adjective Phrase
    • Verb Phrase
    • Adverb Phrase
    • Prepositional Phrase

    Function can be:
    • subject
    • direct object
    • indirect object
    • subject complement
    • object complement
    • adverbials
    • prepositional complement
    • head
    • premodifiers
    • post modifiers
    • determiners
    a. Mary eats a big breakfast every morning.
    = function as direct object in form of noun phrase

    b. I might become a great teacher.
    = function as subject complement in form of noun phrase

    c. I will certainly become a lecturer of Geology.
    = function as postmodifiers for noun phrase 'lecturer' in form of prepositional phrase

    salam sayang

    Subject Complements

    Subject Complements

    In grammar, a subject complement is a predicative expression that follows a linking verb/copula BE (am,is,are,was,were) and that complements the subject of the sentence by either renaming it or describing it.

    If we want to know whether a phrase or a word is a subject complement or not, we can equalize it with the subject of the sentence.


    1. Malaysians are rich.

    -----> Malaysians = rich  (rich is subject complement to Malaysians)

    2. Ali is hardworking.

    -----> Ali = hardworking  (hardworking is subject complement to Ali)

    3. Ali is going to school.

    -----> Ali  to school  ( to school is not subject complement for Ali because the main verb is "go"[not a determining factor]).

    Determining factor

    Two factors help us to determine subject complement.

    1. Copula BE (am,is,are,war,were)


    • I am a Malaysian. (I = a Malaysian)
    • He is Ali. (He = Ali)
    • They are here. (They = here)
    • Ali was at home. (Ali = at home)
    • They were happy. (They = happy)
    • Ali will be there. (Ali = there)
    2. Linking verb

    • Ali seems/apper/looks disturbed. (Ali = disturbed)
    • Ali is rich. (Ali = rich)
    • Ali gets exited. (Ali = exited)
    • Ali stays/remains cool. (Ali = cool)
    • Ali grows/becomes angry. (Ali = angry)
    • Ali went missing. (Ali = missing)
    • Ali ran amuck. (Ali = amuck)
    • Ali turned green. (Ali = green)
    • The food smells/sounds/tastes good. (The food = good)


    There are only three forms of subject complements which are Noun Phrase (NP), Adjective Phrase (AdjP), and Prepositional Phrase (PrepP).

    • Ali is a boy......Ali = a boy...(Np)
    • Ali is hardworking.....Ali = hardworking...(AdjP)
    • Ali is in the mall.....Ali = in the mall...(PrepP)

    salam sayang