Friday, 9 May 2014

Types of clauses (all are dependent clauses)

Hye friends!...Now I want to elaborate more on dependent clauses.. Generally dependent clauses consist of 4 types including noun clauses, relative/adjective clauses, adverbial clauses and finite & non-finite clauses.

Noun clauses

How to identify noun clauses? there are four markers or hint to identify noun phrase.

1. ... a questioned word:

  • where he lives
  • what one says
  • who the man is
2. ... "whether" of "if"
  • whether she will stay
  • if she will stay
3. ...a question word + TO infinitives
  • what to say
  • where to meet
4. ..."that"
  • It is proven that he is innocent
# the noun clauses act as a subject or an object of a sentence. (not a modifier of noun which is relative clause)

Relative clause

A relative clause—also called adjective or adjectival clause.
•We use relative clauses to give extra information about something. We can get more information into a sentence without the need to start a new one.
•There are two types of relative clausesdefining and non-defining

i. defining
The purpose of a defining relative clause is to clearly define who or what we are talking about. Without this information, it would be difficult to know who or what is meant.
ii. non-defining
Non-defining relative clauses provide interesting additional information which is not essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence.

Adverbial clause

Adverbial clauses are clauses that function as adverbs.
Adverbial clauses  provide information about when, why, or how something

Finite clauses

Actually all types of clauses that we have discussed is a finite clauses. They are
noun clauses, relative clauses and adverbial clauses but finite clauses can be
either independent of dependent clauses. It contain subject and verbs marked for
person, number and tense.

I visited the school that Johan built.

> I visited the school = independent finite clauses
> that Johan built = dependent finite clause, relative clause

Non-finite clauses

Non-finite clause is a dependent clause whose verb is non-finite. The nonfinite verb forms found in English are infinitives, bare infinitivesparticiples and gerunds.

For more information, you can click here.

salam sayang

Thursday, 8 May 2014

Main and Subordinate clauses

Hello and assalamualaikum everyone!! today I will share about main and subordinate clauses. Before that, let me define what is the meaning of clause.

Clause?? What is that?

A clause is a group of related words that contains subject and a verb/predicate (and usually other components too). A clause may form part of a sentence or it may be a complete sentence in itself. Clauses are different from a phrase because phrase do not have a subject-verb relationship.

Clauses are categorized into main/independent and subordinate/dependent clauses.

1. Main/independent clauses

A main clause—sometimes called an independent clause—must contain a subject and a verbas well as express a complete thought.

2. Subordinate/dependent clauses

A subordinate clause—also called a dependent clause—will begin with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun and will contain both a subject and a verb. This combination of words will not form a complete sentence. It will instead make a reader want additional information to finish the thought.


1. I know what he wants.
2. You must read if you want to learn.
3. I don't know why they went out.
4. The book that you saw is mine.

yellow= main/independent clause
blue= subordinate/dependent clause
bold= subordinate

So can you distinguish between main and subordinate clauses?

Try to do online exercises here.

Good luck!!
salam sayang

Tuesday, 6 May 2014

M0oD of the sentences (The grammar of interpersonal exchanges)

Hello again everyone !
What is you mood today??

Ok now friends....not only human things or living things have mood. Sentences also have their mood..Really??..yes of course...

1. Declarative sentences
  • The sentences that form a statement

  • Tomorrow I will go to the store. 
  • Yesterday I left school early. 
  • I told her to wear the blue skirt. 
  • She did not want to eat the pizza that I gave her. 
  • We walked to the mall together.

2. Interrogative sentences (WH ans Yes/No interrogative)
  • The sentences that form a question
  • What do you think I should wear the pink shoes or the white sneakers? 
  • What did the teacher say to you yesterday? 
  • Did you go to the movies yesterday?

3. Imperative sentences
  • The sentences that make a command or request

  • Get me some water. 
  • Leave that cat alone. 
  • Go to the store for me. 
  • Bring me some ice.

Did you know that many people assume that imperative sentences have no subject when they really do, the subject of imperative sentences is always you, since in these type of sentences, the person that is making the command or request is always asking you to do something. For this reason, the subject in imperative sentences is called you (understood) because, all though the subject may not be visible in the sentence, it is understood that the subject is always you.
To get a clearer understanding, check these sentences out;
(You) get me some water. 
(You) leave the cat alone. 
(You) go to the store for me. 
(You) Bring me some ice.
4. Exclamatory sentences
  • The sentences that attempt to powerful feelings, or emotions;

  • I'm leaving! 
  • I can not wait to graduate! 
  • I love you so much! 
  • We beat that other team good! 
  • I can't believe how tall giraffes really are! 
  • I can't believe this, I am so upset!

The best way to distinguish one sentence from the other is to memorize what each type of sentence does, for instance you can say, declarative sentences are the statement sentences, interrogative sentences are the question sentences, imperative sentences are the request and command sentences, or the giving order sentences, and exclamatory sentences are the ones that show a strong feeling or emotion. You should also take a piece of paper, and make four rows, and on the top of each row write the names of the different types of sentences; declarative, interrogative etc. and under those names (declarative, interrogative etc.) write 5-10 sentences each, that apply to the kind of sentence, for instance in one column you'll write down declarative and underneath you would write down 5-10 sentences that make a statement. Try reading to, and see if you can spot the different types of sentences. It may be easier to visibly see in writing which sentences are what; you can also use this sheet of paper to refer back to. It may be tricky to distinguish the sentences but with a little practice it will all get easier.
Good luck everyone!

salam sayang

Sentence Structures

Assalamualaikum and hello everyone!! Today I want to share about sentence structures.
There are 4 structures of sentence that we have to know. They are simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound-complex sentence.

  1. Simple sentences:

A simple sentence has only one independent clause and it only have 1 subject and 1 predicate. It can be a short sentence or it can be long.It does NOT contain either a dependent clause or another simple sentence.

  • short simple sentence: The dog barked.
  • long simple sentence: Leaning first this way and then that, the large tan dog with a wide black collar barked loudly at the full moon last night from under the lilac bush in the shadow of the north side of the house. 

The simple sentence may have a compound subject: The dog and the cat howled.
  • It may have a compound verb: The dog howled and barked.
  • It may have a compound subject and a compound verb: The dog and the cat howled and yowled, respectively

2. Compound sentences:

A compound sentence has two or more clauses or consist of two or more simple sentences joined by

(1) a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so): The dog barked, and the cat yowled.
(2) a semicolon: The dog barked; the cat yowled.
(3) a comma, but ONLY when the simple sentences are being treated as items in a series:
The dog barked, the cat yowled, and the rabbit chewed. 


  • (We stayed behind) and (finished the job)- 2 clauses
  • (We stayed behind) and (finished the job), then (we went home)- 3 clauses

The clauses in a compound sentence are joined by co-ordinating conjunctions:

  • John shouted and everybody waved.
  • We looked everywhere but we couldn’t find him.
  • They are coming by car so they should be here soon.

The common coordinating conjunctions are:

and – but – or – nor – so – then – yet - for

3. Complex sentences:

A complex sentence has a main/independent clause and one or more subordinating/dependent clause. 

  • Her father died when she was very young

=Her father died (main clause)
=when (subordinating conjunction)
=she was very young (adverbial clause)

  • She had a difficult childhood because her father died when she was very young.

=She had a difficult childhood (main clause)
=because (subordinating conjunction)
=her father died (adverbial clause)
=when (subordinating conjunction)
=she was very young (adverbial clause).

#Some subordinate clauses can come in front of the main clause:

  • Although a few snakes are dangerous most of them are quite harmless

=Although (subordinating conjunction)
=some snakes are dangerous (adverbial clause)
=most of them are harmless (main clause).

#A sentence can contain both subordinate and coordinate clauses:

  • Although she has always lived in France, she speaks fluent English because her mother was American and her father was Nigerian

=Although (subordinating conjunction)
=she has always lived in France (adverbial clause),
=she speaks fluent English (main clause)
=because (subordinating conjunction)
=her mother was American (adverbial clause)
=and (coordinating conjunction)

=her father was Nigerian (adverbial clause).

4. Compound-complex sentences:

A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

1. Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.
  • independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately"
  • independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with"
  • dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... "
* * * * * * * * * *
 2. We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong.
  • independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too violent"
  • independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we were wrong"
  • dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies

Compound-complex sentences are very common in English, but one mistake that students often make is to try to write them without having mastered the simple sentencescompound sentences, and complex sentences first.
If this is a confusing lesson, return to it later after completing the next three lessons (Lessons Six, Seven, and Eight).

salam sayang