Saturday, 19 April 2014


Enjoy out group presentation slide on role of subject.

Prepared by:

Crystal Lulong Ak Linang
Eleena Erica Huil
Nor Asyikin Binti Mohd Aridi
Nor Aika Irfatini Binti Abu Hasan Ashaari (me)

You also can watch our video at youtube! Happy watching everyone...! Hope that you will learn something..=)

salam sayang

Type of sentences

All sentences fall into just four categories.

They are:
Simple Sentence
Compound Sentence
Complex Sentence
Compound-Complex sentence

Let's take them one at a time.

Simple Sentence 
A simple sentence is a sentence with one independent clause.

Note what the definition does not say. It doesn't say that a simple sentence is short or easy to understand. It doesn't say anything about phrases. A simple sentence can have forty-seven phrases, but only one independent clause.

Let's look at an example:

I love simple sentences.
(That's easy enough. It is obviously one independent clause.)

But look at this:

Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity, I love simple sentences.
(It's longer, more challenging and contains bigger words, but it's still a simple sentence. Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity" is a participial phrase. "With a penchant" and "for syntactical complexity" are prepositional phrases.)

Look at this:
Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity, I love to read simple sentences upon getting up and before going to bed.
(Amazingly, it's still a simple sentence. I am piling on phrase after phrase, but the sentence still contains only one independent clause.)

 Compound Sentence
A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses.


I love conjunctive adverbs, but my students love each other.
(The independent clauses are in blue. This sentence contains no dependent clauses)

Sometimes a compound sentence contains more than two independent clauses.


I love conjunctive adverbs; my students love each other, and we all love holidays.

Sometimes longer linking words can be used.

I can name several conjunctive adverbs; consequently, my friends are impressed.

 Complex Sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence that contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.


Because life is complex, we need complex sentences.
(The independent clause is in blue. The dependent clause is italicized.)


Because people know that I am an English teacher,they make allowances for how I dress and what I say.

(This sentence contains four dependent clauses. The independent clause is in blue. Note that two of the dependent clauses are inside of and part of the independent clause. Don't be alarmed. That happens all the time.)

Compound-complex Sentence 
A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.


Because I am an English teacher, some people expect me to speak perfectly, and other people expect me to write perfectly.
(The dependent clause is underlined, and the independent clauses are in blue.)


Some people tell me that my grading is too tough, and others tell me that my assignments are boring.
(The independent clauses are in blue. The dependent clauses are italicized. Note that the dependent clauses occur within the independent clauses. It often happens.)

salam sayang

Sentece Structures (Clauses)

Sentence structures is one of the most important element in grammar. Beside phrases that we already discuss in the previous post, clause is also one of the main element in sentence structure.

What is clause??

A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and verb or a subject and predicate.

  • the most basic kind of sentence consist of a single clause
  • more complicated sentences may contain multiple clauses
  • traditionally a clause was said to have both finite verb and its subject.
Clauses are divided into two types of clauses.

1. Independent clause

A group of words made up of a subject and a predicate. An independent clause (unlike a dependent clause) can stand alone as a sentence.
By itself, an independent clause (also known as a main clause) is a simple sentence.
Examples and Observations:
·        clause is a group of words that [contains] a subject and a verb. There are two major types: independent clauses and dependent clauses. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence, beginning with a capital letter and ending with terminal punctuation such as a period. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; instead it must be attached to an independent clause."
(G. Lutz and D. Stevenson, The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference, 2005)

·        "When liberty is taken away by force, it can be restored by force. When it is relinquished voluntarily by default, it can never be recovered."

·        "The average man does not want to be free. He simply wants to be safe.

·        "When people talk, listen completely. Most people never listen.
2. Dependent clause

A group of words that has both a subject and a verb but (unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. Also known as a subordinate clause.
Dependent clauses include adverb clausesadjective clauses, and noun clauses.
Examples and Observations:

·          "A dependent clause (also called a subordinate clause) is a clause that cannot stand alone, because something about it implies that there is more to come. On its own, a dependent clause is left hanging, its meaning incomplete. It must be combined with an independent clause in order to form a complete sentence.

"One type of dependent clause is essentially an independent clause with a subordinating word tacked on. Specifically, it opens with a conjunction that indicates a dependent relationship with information elsewhere in the sentence."

salam sayang