Friday, 9 May 2014

Types of clauses (all are dependent clauses)

Hye friends!...Now I want to elaborate more on dependent clauses.. Generally dependent clauses consist of 4 types including noun clauses, relative/adjective clauses, adverbial clauses and finite & non-finite clauses.

Noun clauses

How to identify noun clauses? there are four markers or hint to identify noun phrase.

1. ... a questioned word:

  • where he lives
  • what one says
  • who the man is
2. ... "whether" of "if"
  • whether she will stay
  • if she will stay
3. ...a question word + TO infinitives
  • what to say
  • where to meet
4. ..."that"
  • It is proven that he is innocent
# the noun clauses act as a subject or an object of a sentence. (not a modifier of noun which is relative clause)

Relative clause

A relative clause—also called adjective or adjectival clause.
•We use relative clauses to give extra information about something. We can get more information into a sentence without the need to start a new one.
•There are two types of relative clausesdefining and non-defining

i. defining
The purpose of a defining relative clause is to clearly define who or what we are talking about. Without this information, it would be difficult to know who or what is meant.
ii. non-defining
Non-defining relative clauses provide interesting additional information which is not essential to understanding the meaning of the sentence.

Adverbial clause

Adverbial clauses are clauses that function as adverbs.
Adverbial clauses  provide information about when, why, or how something

Finite clauses

Actually all types of clauses that we have discussed is a finite clauses. They are
noun clauses, relative clauses and adverbial clauses but finite clauses can be
either independent of dependent clauses. It contain subject and verbs marked for
person, number and tense.

I visited the school that Johan built.

> I visited the school = independent finite clauses
> that Johan built = dependent finite clause, relative clause

Non-finite clauses

Non-finite clause is a dependent clause whose verb is non-finite. The nonfinite verb forms found in English are infinitives, bare infinitivesparticiples and gerunds.

For more information, you can click here.

salam sayang

Thursday, 8 May 2014

Main and Subordinate clauses

Hello and assalamualaikum everyone!! today I will share about main and subordinate clauses. Before that, let me define what is the meaning of clause.

Clause?? What is that?

A clause is a group of related words that contains subject and a verb/predicate (and usually other components too). A clause may form part of a sentence or it may be a complete sentence in itself. Clauses are different from a phrase because phrase do not have a subject-verb relationship.

Clauses are categorized into main/independent and subordinate/dependent clauses.

1. Main/independent clauses

A main clause—sometimes called an independent clause—must contain a subject and a verbas well as express a complete thought.

2. Subordinate/dependent clauses

A subordinate clause—also called a dependent clause—will begin with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun and will contain both a subject and a verb. This combination of words will not form a complete sentence. It will instead make a reader want additional information to finish the thought.


1. I know what he wants.
2. You must read if you want to learn.
3. I don't know why they went out.
4. The book that you saw is mine.

yellow= main/independent clause
blue= subordinate/dependent clause
bold= subordinate

So can you distinguish between main and subordinate clauses?

Try to do online exercises here.

Good luck!!
salam sayang

Tuesday, 6 May 2014

M0oD of the sentences (The grammar of interpersonal exchanges)

Hello again everyone !
What is you mood today??

Ok now friends....not only human things or living things have mood. Sentences also have their mood..Really??..yes of course...

1. Declarative sentences
  • The sentences that form a statement

  • Tomorrow I will go to the store. 
  • Yesterday I left school early. 
  • I told her to wear the blue skirt. 
  • She did not want to eat the pizza that I gave her. 
  • We walked to the mall together.

2. Interrogative sentences (WH ans Yes/No interrogative)
  • The sentences that form a question
  • What do you think I should wear the pink shoes or the white sneakers? 
  • What did the teacher say to you yesterday? 
  • Did you go to the movies yesterday?

3. Imperative sentences
  • The sentences that make a command or request

  • Get me some water. 
  • Leave that cat alone. 
  • Go to the store for me. 
  • Bring me some ice.

Did you know that many people assume that imperative sentences have no subject when they really do, the subject of imperative sentences is always you, since in these type of sentences, the person that is making the command or request is always asking you to do something. For this reason, the subject in imperative sentences is called you (understood) because, all though the subject may not be visible in the sentence, it is understood that the subject is always you.
To get a clearer understanding, check these sentences out;
(You) get me some water. 
(You) leave the cat alone. 
(You) go to the store for me. 
(You) Bring me some ice.
4. Exclamatory sentences
  • The sentences that attempt to powerful feelings, or emotions;

  • I'm leaving! 
  • I can not wait to graduate! 
  • I love you so much! 
  • We beat that other team good! 
  • I can't believe how tall giraffes really are! 
  • I can't believe this, I am so upset!

The best way to distinguish one sentence from the other is to memorize what each type of sentence does, for instance you can say, declarative sentences are the statement sentences, interrogative sentences are the question sentences, imperative sentences are the request and command sentences, or the giving order sentences, and exclamatory sentences are the ones that show a strong feeling or emotion. You should also take a piece of paper, and make four rows, and on the top of each row write the names of the different types of sentences; declarative, interrogative etc. and under those names (declarative, interrogative etc.) write 5-10 sentences each, that apply to the kind of sentence, for instance in one column you'll write down declarative and underneath you would write down 5-10 sentences that make a statement. Try reading to, and see if you can spot the different types of sentences. It may be easier to visibly see in writing which sentences are what; you can also use this sheet of paper to refer back to. It may be tricky to distinguish the sentences but with a little practice it will all get easier.
Good luck everyone!

salam sayang

Sentence Structures

Assalamualaikum and hello everyone!! Today I want to share about sentence structures.
There are 4 structures of sentence that we have to know. They are simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound-complex sentence.

  1. Simple sentences:

A simple sentence has only one independent clause and it only have 1 subject and 1 predicate. It can be a short sentence or it can be long.It does NOT contain either a dependent clause or another simple sentence.

  • short simple sentence: The dog barked.
  • long simple sentence: Leaning first this way and then that, the large tan dog with a wide black collar barked loudly at the full moon last night from under the lilac bush in the shadow of the north side of the house. 

The simple sentence may have a compound subject: The dog and the cat howled.
  • It may have a compound verb: The dog howled and barked.
  • It may have a compound subject and a compound verb: The dog and the cat howled and yowled, respectively

2. Compound sentences:

A compound sentence has two or more clauses or consist of two or more simple sentences joined by

(1) a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so): The dog barked, and the cat yowled.
(2) a semicolon: The dog barked; the cat yowled.
(3) a comma, but ONLY when the simple sentences are being treated as items in a series:
The dog barked, the cat yowled, and the rabbit chewed. 


  • (We stayed behind) and (finished the job)- 2 clauses
  • (We stayed behind) and (finished the job), then (we went home)- 3 clauses

The clauses in a compound sentence are joined by co-ordinating conjunctions:

  • John shouted and everybody waved.
  • We looked everywhere but we couldn’t find him.
  • They are coming by car so they should be here soon.

The common coordinating conjunctions are:

and – but – or – nor – so – then – yet - for

3. Complex sentences:

A complex sentence has a main/independent clause and one or more subordinating/dependent clause. 

  • Her father died when she was very young

=Her father died (main clause)
=when (subordinating conjunction)
=she was very young (adverbial clause)

  • She had a difficult childhood because her father died when she was very young.

=She had a difficult childhood (main clause)
=because (subordinating conjunction)
=her father died (adverbial clause)
=when (subordinating conjunction)
=she was very young (adverbial clause).

#Some subordinate clauses can come in front of the main clause:

  • Although a few snakes are dangerous most of them are quite harmless

=Although (subordinating conjunction)
=some snakes are dangerous (adverbial clause)
=most of them are harmless (main clause).

#A sentence can contain both subordinate and coordinate clauses:

  • Although she has always lived in France, she speaks fluent English because her mother was American and her father was Nigerian

=Although (subordinating conjunction)
=she has always lived in France (adverbial clause),
=she speaks fluent English (main clause)
=because (subordinating conjunction)
=her mother was American (adverbial clause)
=and (coordinating conjunction)

=her father was Nigerian (adverbial clause).

4. Compound-complex sentences:

A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

1. Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.
  • independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately"
  • independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with"
  • dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... "
* * * * * * * * * *
 2. We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong.
  • independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too violent"
  • independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we were wrong"
  • dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies

Compound-complex sentences are very common in English, but one mistake that students often make is to try to write them without having mastered the simple sentencescompound sentences, and complex sentences first.
If this is a confusing lesson, return to it later after completing the next three lessons (Lessons Six, Seven, and Eight).

salam sayang

Sunday, 20 April 2014

Direct and Indirect Object

Direct & Indirect Object

In a sentence, the subject and verb may be followed by an object. An object is a noun or
pronoun that gives meaning to the subject and verb of the sentence. Not all sentences
contain objects, but some may contain one or more. 

There are two kinds of objects within a
sentence: direct and indirect objects.

I. A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb.

Daniel fixes computers.
  •  computers=direct object

Try this technique when determining the location of the direct object in the above

1) First locate the subject and verb in the sentence. The subject in the above sentence
is “Daniel” and the verb is “fixes.”
2) Now ask yourself the questions What? or Whom? about the verb “fixes.”
3) What does the subject, Daniel, fix? Daniel fixes computers.

II. Sometimes a direct object is followed by an indirect object. 

An indirect object is the noun or pronoun for which the action is done.

 Daniel fixes computers for his family.

  • his family=indirect object

1) First locate the subject (Daniel) and the verb (fixes).
2) Now ask yourself the questions To Whom? To What? For Whom? or For What? about
the subject and verb.
3) For whom does the subject, Daniel, fix computers? Daniel fixes computers for his family.

**An indirect object may also come before the direct object.

Susan gave me her notes. (To whom did Susan give her notes? me)

 indirect object

salam sayang

Object complement

What Is an Object Complement?

An object complement is a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective which follows a direct object to rename it or state what it has become.

Verbs of making (e.g., to make, to create) or naming (e.g., to name, to call, to elect) often attract an object complement. In the examples below, the object complements are shaded and the direct objects are in bold.
Ø  To make her happy
Ø  To name her Heidi
However, lots of verbs can take an object complement. For example:
Ø  To consider someone stupid
Ø  To paint something purple
Ø  To catch somebody stealing
Examples of Object Complements

Ø  I found the guard sleeping.

Ø  We all consider her unworthy.

Ø  I declare this centre open.

Ø  We consider fish spoiled once it smells like what it is.

·        To obtain a man's opinion of you, make him mad. (Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1809-1894)
An object complement is not always one word. It could be a phrase. For example:
Ø  I found the guard sleeping in the barn.

Ø  We all consider her unworthy of the position.

salam sayang

Saturday, 19 April 2014


Enjoy out group presentation slide on role of subject.

Prepared by:

Crystal Lulong Ak Linang
Eleena Erica Huil
Nor Asyikin Binti Mohd Aridi
Nor Aika Irfatini Binti Abu Hasan Ashaari (me)

You also can watch our video at youtube! Happy watching everyone...! Hope that you will learn something..=)

salam sayang

Type of sentences

All sentences fall into just four categories.

They are:
Simple Sentence
Compound Sentence
Complex Sentence
Compound-Complex sentence

Let's take them one at a time.

Simple Sentence 
A simple sentence is a sentence with one independent clause.

Note what the definition does not say. It doesn't say that a simple sentence is short or easy to understand. It doesn't say anything about phrases. A simple sentence can have forty-seven phrases, but only one independent clause.

Let's look at an example:

I love simple sentences.
(That's easy enough. It is obviously one independent clause.)

But look at this:

Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity, I love simple sentences.
(It's longer, more challenging and contains bigger words, but it's still a simple sentence. Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity" is a participial phrase. "With a penchant" and "for syntactical complexity" are prepositional phrases.)

Look at this:
Being an English teacher with a penchant for syntactical complexity, I love to read simple sentences upon getting up and before going to bed.
(Amazingly, it's still a simple sentence. I am piling on phrase after phrase, but the sentence still contains only one independent clause.)

 Compound Sentence
A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses.


I love conjunctive adverbs, but my students love each other.
(The independent clauses are in blue. This sentence contains no dependent clauses)

Sometimes a compound sentence contains more than two independent clauses.


I love conjunctive adverbs; my students love each other, and we all love holidays.

Sometimes longer linking words can be used.

I can name several conjunctive adverbs; consequently, my friends are impressed.

 Complex Sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence that contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.


Because life is complex, we need complex sentences.
(The independent clause is in blue. The dependent clause is italicized.)


Because people know that I am an English teacher,they make allowances for how I dress and what I say.

(This sentence contains four dependent clauses. The independent clause is in blue. Note that two of the dependent clauses are inside of and part of the independent clause. Don't be alarmed. That happens all the time.)

Compound-complex Sentence 
A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.


Because I am an English teacher, some people expect me to speak perfectly, and other people expect me to write perfectly.
(The dependent clause is underlined, and the independent clauses are in blue.)


Some people tell me that my grading is too tough, and others tell me that my assignments are boring.
(The independent clauses are in blue. The dependent clauses are italicized. Note that the dependent clauses occur within the independent clauses. It often happens.)

salam sayang

Sentece Structures (Clauses)

Sentence structures is one of the most important element in grammar. Beside phrases that we already discuss in the previous post, clause is also one of the main element in sentence structure.

What is clause??

A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and verb or a subject and predicate.

  • the most basic kind of sentence consist of a single clause
  • more complicated sentences may contain multiple clauses
  • traditionally a clause was said to have both finite verb and its subject.
Clauses are divided into two types of clauses.

1. Independent clause

A group of words made up of a subject and a predicate. An independent clause (unlike a dependent clause) can stand alone as a sentence.
By itself, an independent clause (also known as a main clause) is a simple sentence.
Examples and Observations:
·        clause is a group of words that [contains] a subject and a verb. There are two major types: independent clauses and dependent clauses. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence, beginning with a capital letter and ending with terminal punctuation such as a period. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; instead it must be attached to an independent clause."
(G. Lutz and D. Stevenson, The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference, 2005)

·        "When liberty is taken away by force, it can be restored by force. When it is relinquished voluntarily by default, it can never be recovered."

·        "The average man does not want to be free. He simply wants to be safe.

·        "When people talk, listen completely. Most people never listen.
2. Dependent clause

A group of words that has both a subject and a verb but (unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. Also known as a subordinate clause.
Dependent clauses include adverb clausesadjective clauses, and noun clauses.
Examples and Observations:

·          "A dependent clause (also called a subordinate clause) is a clause that cannot stand alone, because something about it implies that there is more to come. On its own, a dependent clause is left hanging, its meaning incomplete. It must be combined with an independent clause in order to form a complete sentence.

"One type of dependent clause is essentially an independent clause with a subordinating word tacked on. Specifically, it opens with a conjunction that indicates a dependent relationship with information elsewhere in the sentence."

salam sayang

Thursday, 3 April 2014


Assalamualaikum and Hello..I'm sorry because a bit late updating my blog about my previous lecture and tutorial. The thing is..we are very busy with assignments and presentations for all subjects for this semester. So today, I will share about the topic that I learned 2 weeks ago. It is "Ellipsis".

What is Ellipsis?

Ellipsis is actually the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues.

We also used (...) three dots to show that words have been omitted from a quotation or to create a pause for effect. More specifically, an ellipsis can be used:

  • To show an omission of a word or words (including whole sentences) from a text.
  • To create a pause for effect.
  • To show an unfinished thought.
  • To show a trail off into silence.


For Example:

  • 1)

  • Original: "I stopped believing in Santa Claus when my mother took me to see him in a department store, and he asked for my autograph." (Shirley Temple)
  • With ellipsis: "I stopped believing in Santa Claus when…he asked for my autograph."

  • 2)

  • Original: "A hat should be taken off when you greet a lady and left off for the rest of your life – nothing looks more stupid than a hat."
  • With ellipsis: "A hat should be taken off when you greet a lady and left off […] nothing looks more stupid than a hat."

  •

    The omission occur/ words can be abbreviated when a sentence:

    1) Have the same subject.

    By nine o'clock, they had washed their hands and they had eaten their lunch.

    By nine o'clock, they had washed their hands and ... eaten their lunch.

    2) Repeated objects

    We gave food to everyone and water to everyone.

    We gave food ... and water to everyone.

    3) Repeated prepositional phrase

    I lived in Rome and studied in Rome for a year.

    I lived ... and studied in Rome for a year.

    4) Repeated verb phrase

    5) Repeated adjectives

    Thats all for today friends..! Happy to share..For more infirmation you can go to:

    salam sayang

    Thursday, 20 March 2014

    Tutorial activity 3

    During this tutorial, we are given a task to complete an exercise about what we have learned previously. This is a pair work task, so I did answer all the questions with my lovely classmate Nor Asyikin Binti Mohd Aridi.

    Below are the questions that we answered. Happy to share! =) 

     A subject complement is the noun,adjective, or preposition (pronoun) that follows a verb (copula BE and linking verb.)

    What is linking verb?

    Verbs that do not show action. they connect the subject and subject complement.

    The following verbs are true linking verbs: any form of the verb BE (am,is,are,was,were,has been,are being,might have been,etc). become and seem.

    1. Mary is a prized dancer.

    Mary= Subject ,   is=Linking verb, and dancer = noun as subject complement.

    2. It was she who chased the running thief last Wednesday night.

    It = subject, was = linking verb, she = pronoun as subject complement.

    3. Bill turns shy when girls compliment his looks.

    Bill = subject, turns = linking verb, shy = adjective as subject complement.

    What is an object complement?

    An object  complement is the noun,adjective, or pronoun that follows a direct object. To rename it or state what it has become.

    Verbs of making (e.g., make, create, place) or naming (e.g., name, elect, call) often links with an object complement.

    In the examples below, underline the object complement and label the direct object.

    1. I found the guard peeping.
    2. We all consider her worthless.
    3. I declare this centre closed.
    4. To make her miserable.
    5. To name her Heliah.
    6. To consider someone smart.
    7. To draw something clearly.
    8. To catch somebody cheating.

    Blue = direct object.

    salam sayang